[GUEST POST] Writing About Race in Science Fiction and Fantasy (Part 2 of a Roundtable Interview)

Dear SF Signal Readers,

Hi! My name’s Zack Jernigan. I conducted this roundtable interview over the last year. Just so you know, I wrote a long, painfully self-conscious introduction about my upbringing as a white, heterosexual male born into a middle-middle-class family and how that contributed to my desire to start a discussion on the subject of Writing About Race in Sff Literature, but I scrapped it. When you’ve received such amazing responses from your interviewees, it’s best to get to them with the minimum of words.

So: Suffice it to say, this is an important topic for discussion. I hope that you enjoy reading part 2, below (Part 1 is here), and that you’ll feel free to comment. I also encourage you to visit the authors’ websites and buy their amazing work.

And enjoy!


Writing About Race in Science Fiction and Fantasy

A Roundtable Interview with David Anthony Durham, Aliette de Bodard, Adrian Tchaikovsky, and Ken Liu
(Continued from Part 1)

Q: There is a greater deal of “non-western” science fiction and fantasy being published-successfully-right now. As a result, a sense of excitement about reading and writing works that celebrate a wider range of skin tones and cultural influences appears to permeate the current discourse. Do you think we’re seeing a permanent shift in the sff literary culture, or do you think the possibility exists for it to once again restrict itself to certain perspectives?
David Anthony Durham

Permanent shift. In some ways it feels like a rapid shift, but there’s no going back. A few years ago, when I first began going to cons, there were a handful of writers of color that been around for a while-Octavia Butler, Samuel R. Delany, Steven Barnes, Tananarive Due, Nalo Hopkinson, and a few others. It was a short list, and it didn’t take long to rattle through it.

What I noticed, though, was a host of emerging writers at the beginning of their careers. Saladin Ahmed wrote me asking to meet up and chat-long before his first novel was ready. Paolo Bacigalupi was already super cool, but he hadn’t smashed it with his rapid succession of novels yet. Aliette de Bodard and Tony Pi were up for the Campbell Award with me, and Alaya Dawn Johnson and Tempest Bradford were always on the scene.

We were hopeful back then, but daunted too. On the night I won the Campbell, N.K. Jemisin congratulated me, but she also expressed concern that there wasn’t going to be room in the genre for more than a couple of writers of color-that others wouldn’t be allowed in. Her novels weren’t out yet. They are now, as we all know, and doing wonderfully. I remember Nnedi Okorafor worrying about Who Fears Death being too dark, too political, too African to have much hope of success. I consider a World Fantasy Award (which she just edged out Jemisin for) to be pretty successful!

There’s no short list of writers of color anymore. It’s quite a long list, and it’s filled with people working in different genres and writing for different audiences. These authors are winning awards, some of them are selling big, and they’re at the core of the sff community. They’re not just being allowed in on temporary passes. They are at the heart of what’s happening in the genre. That’s helping to encourage some white writers to turn to non-European settings in their work as well. They might’ve wanted to for a while. Now it’s clearly possible.

There may be setbacks, of course, but I think we’ve broken out of the box too fully to get jammed back into it. Exciting times.

Aliette de Bodard

There is a shift, a definite shift that includes more diversity in genre-whether it be racial, sexual or otherwise. I’m definitely not complaining about it, and it’s wonderful that writers like Helen Oyeyemi, Nnedi Okorafor, or Ekaterina Sedia are being published and finding a wider audience-and being nominated for awards all over the place.

I apologize for the fact that the next few paragraphs are basically going to be my European cynical self taking a look at the way things are going…

I am somewhat skeptical of the fact that this shift is indeed irreversible: in Europe at least, as the economic crisis looms, we’re closing back upon ourselves and becoming more and more insular and more and more racist, even as immigration and the stigmatization of children of immigrants becomes a hot topic. And I can’t help but wonder if that will lead us to return to “core French-ness” (whatever that means, as it’s a carefully constructed fiction built on the majority views over the centuries!) and exclude anything that looks like diversity from our shelves. Certainly in France, our presidential campaign has focused on the “core values” of Jeanne d’Arc, Victor Hugo and Molière, which is hardly the vibrant diversity I’m (and no doubt many others!) are looking for.

I worry, too, that our definition of genre leads us to exclude things that include strong genre elements that don’t follow “standard” tropes, whether they be those of epic fantasy, space opera, etc. This means in turn that the works of numerous (non-Western) literary traditions are being excluded from genre, either published as mainstream/by small presses, or not published at all because their narratives and tropes seem too alien to be related to. This is something I’m seeing, for instance, with a lot of Hispanic-tradition work from Latin America/the Philippines, where we have this particular sense of a world continuously permeated with magic, and of narratives that aren’t always about the good guys winning, at least not in a Hollywood sense-and that, in the best of case, get published as magical realism; in the worst of cases, get ignored altogether, because they don’t fit our notion of genre or of satisfying narratives. But you can of course extend it to other cultures and other traditions I’m less familiar with (like Thai stories, or African stories…).

This leads me to my next worry, which is that I’m seeing a lot of non-Western themes and fiction being published, but I worry that a lot of those are mostly Western Anglophone POCs (US, Can, UK, Aus, NZ…). Don’t get me wrong, I think it’s a wonderful thing that those people are getting published and bringing their voice to genre. But I do worry that the distinction between them and POCs living elsewhere (particularly in the Third World) isn’t being made, and that we celebrate diversity even as we make little to no effort to reach across borders to bring in more diverse tropes and more diverse literatures. I’m thinking of books from large Anglophone countries like India, which we basically don’t see in genre (at least in the Western Anglophone definition of it); or books from China or Japan (though Haikasoru has made wonderful inroads in that regard). I basically worry that we’re going to rest on our laurels and feel that inclusiveness has been achieved, without leaping to the next stage of reaching to other countries. I love genre; I feel we’re making great inroads and great progress, but that for a genre that bills itself as mindblowing and boundary-pushing, we still feel very parochial and very inward-looking.

Adrian Tchaikovsky

As a reader, the dearth of racial diversity in fantasy-writers and settings/characters-is something I’ve been aware of for a long time. Whilst we do seem to have come a long way from the 30’s pulps where very often to be anything other than white was to be actively and irredeemably evil, there has been quite a history of Umslopogaas-style supporting roles, the noble savages, the foreigners in an otherwise white land with their crazy superstitions or ancient wisdom. These characters are generally the good guys, but secondary good guys, and with a utility that mostly involves being able to either separate souls from bodies, or to perform dodgy magic that the whiter characters wouldn’t necessarily want to mess with. Also, just like the black guy in so many films, they tend to die heartrendingly so that the hero can make it (and wasn’t it nice at the end of Gladiator to have that reversed a little?).

I write in a secondary world that is not strongly based on any particular real culture. The Lowlands of the kinden owes something to classical Greece and something to Europe in the world wars, but it is not those places or times, and the kinden themselves have ethnicities all their own. Even then, though, there is a long tradition in secondary world fantasy of essentially whitewashing imaginary places, ethnically and culturally, and when I started on Empire I made a conscious decision that — because it is a fantastic place — it can be as diverse as I like. Hence the Beetle-kinden of Collegium are dark-skinned, and form the majority of my sympathetic culture, which is cosmopolitan and noted mostly for scholars, merchants, diplomats and engineers. What actual impact this has, if any at all, I’m not sure. It’s not the same, for example, as writing a fantasy set in Africa, or even in a secondary world that is closely modeled on an extant African culture.

Stephen Erikson has a similar setup in his Malazan novels – a variety of skin tones in a completely secondary world. It’s worth noting that (and ignoring the various non-human races which are all sorts of shapes and colors) two of his most engaging heroes, Kalam and Quick Ben, are black.

Fantasy with non-western settings (or indeed non-not-really-medieval settings) is certainly on the rise, as a part of an overall diversification of setting that I think the genre is experiencing-other shifts include, for example, a change from rural to urban settings. There have always been writers out there who have been willing to go that extra mile for an interesting setting (Grimwood’s Arabesque or Effinger’s When Gravity Fails as examples) but this is definitely gaining momentum, with very high profile books such as McDonald’s The Dervish House, Bacigalupi’s Windup Girl and Beukes’ Zoo City thronging awards shortlists for taking readers on a fantastic journey to the near or fantastic future of parts of the world they would not normally see. And yes, you then do have the question of “is this just white guys/girls with a white take on foreign culture?” and that’s a book-by-book decision. The counter-question is, “is it better for white writers to pretend that the rest of the world has no place, either in SF or fantasy,” and I hope the answer to that is surely “no.”

Ken Liu

I agree that there is a great deal of genre fiction being published right now that shows promising signs of diversity: written by POC authors, featuring non-Western settings, having non-White characters in leading roles, questioning gender roles and norms, displaying non-Western cultural influences, etc.

Most of these are indeed wonderful developments deserving celebration, but I also see signs that are worrisome. For example, I’m noticing a lot of attempts to imagine Chinese characters and settings in genre fiction, but some of them seem to have taken anti-Chinese sentiment and racial Othering to a level reminiscent of Jack London’s sinophobia.

As another example, I still detect a trend in genre fiction to valorize only certain attitudes towards technology and exploration and identify them exclusively with “the West.” And I see again and again the knee-jerk tendency to dismiss certain subjects and subgenres as “girlie” and therefore automatically unworthy.

I believe trends in genre fiction simply reflect patterns in our real-world politics. As a pessimist, I’m not hopeful about many of these political developments, and thus I also think it’s too early to declare progress in diversity in genre fiction.

I hope I’m wrong.

Q: What recent sff works that examine race have excited you? Have any of these works inspired you to explore the subject of race in your fiction?
David Anthony Durham

Three titles come to mind, all authors I mentioned earlier. The thing is, I don’t exactly feel like any of them are examining race, not overtly at least. What they’re doing is simply telling stories of characters of distinctly non-European ethnicity. In a way, just doing that is an exploration of race, I guess.

I really enjoyed Paolo Bacigulpi’s YA novel, Shipbreaker. It’s set in a near-future earth wherein environmental disasters have dramatically altered the world. He focuses on kids that are living at the margins of society, doing incredibly dangerous work, with very few prospects for long or comfortable lives. Paolo’s future is truly multicultural, his characters fanned out along the ethnic spectrum. To me, it’s a much more realistic notion of the future than the many visions that have projected a largely white world ahead of us. It’s not that Paolo is necessarily out to create a revisionist version of the future (if that notion makes sense at all). It’s that his awareness of race and ethnicity informs the future he envisions, creating a particularly credible collage of characters.

Both Nnedi Okorafor’s Who Fears Death and Saladin Ahmed’s Throne of the Crescent Moon feature cultures of African and Arab descent, respectively. Nnedi took everything that excites her about serious approaches to the fantastic and set her story in Africa, drawing on specifically African traditions/situations. Saladin did the same with his particular setting, to wonderful effect. They both feel really fresh, fantastic in all the best ways-but with new cultural/racial components at play that keep things uniquely interesting.

I’m looking forward to reading God’s War by Kameron Hurley. Nightshade kindly sent me a copy recently!

Aliette de Bodard

This is a bit of a trick question for me, because SFF is still a very American/Western Anglophone universe, and as a result, many of the cultural/racial conflicts it features don’t speak to me as much as they could, mainly because, even when depicted well (which is not always the case!), they remain fairly specific to the US and US mainstream culture. The racial dynamics in my country, for instance, are very different (and they’re even more different in Vietnam). And, at least from where I’m sitting, the question of race, culture and conflicts is further complicated by US dominance of our cultural markets: it’s not only a question of what ethnicity dominates within a given country and imposes its standards on others, but also of dominance from abroad; and specifically, local cultures and local values being extinguished by the tide of Hollywood imports and American novels that floods every country in the world (I’m not saying American media has no value-of course not-just that they’re abnormally dominant in our bookshops/cinemas, whereas very little gets translated into English for American consumption).

That said, and on a more positive note, I’ve read some excellent work lately: Ken Liu’s “The Paper Menagerie” and “The Man Who Ended History: A Documentary” both tackle complex tangles of family history, racial conflicts and immigrant identity. Rochita Loenen-Ruiz’s work, like “Alternate Girl’s Expatriate Life”, also tackles similar subjects very smartly and with fluid, poetic prose. At novel length, Helen Oyeyemi’s Mr Fox tackles subjects like the place of women in stories, cultural identity and racism in a very idiosyncratic way. I have also been reading some truly terrible work which featured clichéd descriptions of Asia and China in particular; and it’s this, more than the excellent depictions, that has been encouraging me to write fiction which tackled the problems of cultural domination, immigration and colonization in my current work. My recent story “Scattered Along the River of Heaven” in Clarkesworld dealt with decolonization and the formation of diasporas; and I have another story in their June issue, “Immersion”, which tackles globalization and the silencing of cultural identities.

Adrian Tchaikovsky

It’s not an area I’ve been particularly seeking out so much as picking up by osmosis. Works by up-and-coming American authors such as David Anthony Durham and Saladin Ahmed are a good sign that the writing pool is more varied these days, which can only be a good thing. Zoo City by Lauren Beukes is (as well as a thoroughly engaging story) a fascinating story about prejudice and apartheid, and Lavie Tidhar’s Osama has a similarly thought-provoking look at the tensions and paranoia between the West and the Middle East. Col Buchanan’s Farlander is an epic fantasy with a black main character-albeit a warrior foreigner in a white culture. The world of Mieville’s Perdido Street Station is a fantasy take on a very modern urban environment replete with immigrant communities who face familiar reactions from the human majority-I have read some critiques (not of Mieville-aimed more at the “vampire/werewolf as persecuted minority” end of urban fantasy) which attack using non-humans as minorities, as setting them apart from “humanity” has all sorts of problems, both demonizing and beatifying, neither of which is useful. Mieville’s take in the three books of that series is, I’d argue, a model in exactly how the concept can be done right.

Another series of note is Erikson’s Malazan Book of the Dead, a very good example of a fantasy world where the ethnicities of the various nationalities, and the way they are portrayed, owe relatively little to the real world, and Erikson’s effect there, of having a secondary world that isn’t just a mishmash of bits of the real world with culture/color/religion imported in wholesale blocks to populate the map, is something I’ve also striven to do in my own work.

Ken Liu

I’m going to go a bit off-path on my answer here.

I’m a lawyer, and I think some of the most fascinating works that examine race today are written by Supreme Court Justices. Many of the Court’s decisions, for example in areas like the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, affirmative action, and discrimination, deal with race either explicitly or implicitly. You can see many stories and assumptions about race being told or revealed as you read through these opinions, concurrences, and dissents. And many of these stories I would label speculative fiction.

And yes, these decisions have inspired me in my fiction. Fiction can’t help but engage with the real world we live in.

Contributor Bios

David Anthony Durham is the author of the Acacia Trilogy of fantasy novels, as well as the historical novels Pride of Carthage, Walk Through Darkness and Gabriel’s Story. His novels have been published in the UK and in nine foreign languages. Four of them have been optioned for development as feature films.

Aliette de Bodard is a Franco-Vietnamese who works as a Computer Engineer, and pays far too much attention to languages, cultures, and good food. She lives in a flat with her husband, more computers than people, and two tentacled Lovecraftian plants in the process of taking over the living room. Her fiction has appeared in Asimov’s, Clarkesworld, and the Year’s Best Science Fiction, and has garnered a Writers of the Future Award and a BSFA award, as well as nominations for the Hugo and Nebula. Her trilogy of Aztec noir fantasies, Obsidian and Blood, is published by Angry Robot. Visit http://aliettedebodard.com for more information.

Adrian Tchaikovsky was born in Woodhall Spa, Lincolnshire, before heading off to Reading to study psychology and zoology. For reasons unclear even to himself he subsequently ended up in law and has worked as a legal executive in both Reading and Leeds, where he now lives. Married, he is a keen live role-player and occasional amateur actor, has trained in stage-fighting, and keeps no exotic or dangerous pets of any kind, possibly excepting his son. The self-styled foremost UK writer of insect-themed fantasy fiction, his series, Shadows of the Apt, begins with Empire in Black and Gold and book 8, The Air War, is out August 2012. Catch up with him at www.shadowsoftheapt.com for further information about both himself and the insect-kinden, together with bonus material including short stories and artwork.

Ken Liu is an author and translator of speculative fiction, as well as a lawyer and programmer. His fiction has appeared in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, Asimov’s, Analog, Clarkesworld, Lightspeed, and Strange Horizons, among other places. He has won the Nebula and been nominated for the Hugo and the Sturgeon awards. He lives with his family near Boston, Massachusetts.

Zachary Jernigan was inspired to start the above discussion after tackling the issue of race in his first novel, No Return, and his second Asimov’s story, “The War is Over and Everyone Wins” (January 2012). He lives in Arizona, where the sun is always shining and the politicians are always pissing him off. Now and then he blogs about sff literature and his many goofy hangups at zacharyjernigan.blogspot.com.

10 thoughts on “[GUEST POST] Writing About Race in Science Fiction and Fantasy (Part 2 of a Roundtable Interview)”

  1. While I think David Anthony Durhams responses were thoughtful, Spot on and inclusive I do want to remind my White Liberal High Browlers(9 finger split)and others to always judge themselves before others, Understand it’s easy to look like a joke if your bashing a race to toot your own horn and that race is your own. Much like women who are dominate in many fields today(which would mean a certain degree of exclusion) which in some contradicts the almost Daily article on how women to suffer in a mans world.

    I see the change as good and evolutionary, But only a few short years ago we had a culture who almost unanimously felt that a black president would never would happen in America. (and I’m saying Never Ever!)
    And we need at least a little insight from people to say, Hey The system isn’t designed to hate me after all. Even though Class plays a big issue I can do it/not that you/I will, And the poor will always have the deck stacked against them. But Yes we can, even if few of us are as talented or as ambitious as Obama.

    I am responding to Mr. Durham because he mentioned a writer who suffered from this unlighted philosophy. Which usually equates as “The White Devil will only set so many plates at the table” complex. And now she is showered in awards and adoration/money by many of the same devils.

    I also mention this on a personal reflection as a Writer who had just won awards about an Evil White Man hunting a youhng black woman who was a product of his Raping the people(Daughter) This Father of Hate who was then continued chasing down his mix/But representing mainly a black woman to continue his evilness. This would seem like a Racist book to many. And if you changed the colors around you might get everyone to admit this, But to each their own.

    The thing is I remember responding to her attack on Stephen King and his Book “The Stand” as some sort of Racist Bible. and even though I do hate the book, and also can see how you could twist it to being somewhat racist. I could not/would not stand the hypocrAZY of a person who was winning awards for what would be considered Racist Literature by many.

    So while we enter this brave new world I do want people to understand the white Slave Master was defeated by their white brothers. And even though it is something easy to forget in this day and age. It could be said in many ways it is their heritage that has as much as anything led to Obama being our first Black President.

    Always remember what a very wise man said about how one can only abolish hate with Love and not Hate. And also not to forget that Love and Hate comes from the very intricate and often contradictory Head and not Heart.

    Its a Interesting Life isn’t it…

  2. Ok I just read my rant(where is a Good editor when you need one)
    I do want to make sure that everyone does not just refute my stance because I did not come to their defense and say of course their is Sexism/Racism and of course there are problems.

    I just take for granted that everyone has had this rammed down their throat so much that it goes without say. What I am saying is that many will have it change them into the same demon they hate so much. And in this America it will be easy never to check yourself. Self Reflection is the only true way to Self Improvement.

    Anyway Good Luck to us All!

  3. Um… Interesting take, Midas68. I’m glad you found something that spurred your consideration, however much I may disagree with you.

    On a general note for everybody: Thanks for the response to this interview. I saw that the first part was one of the top-viewed posts in May, and that made my day. I’ve received support by email and on facebook, and I hope you know how much that means. if anyone has any suggestions about future roundtable interview topics — and participants — please let me know.

    Take care, Sf Signalers!

    1. Really nothing to disagree with if you think of the subject as complex as it is respect for the subject being much deeper then black and white.

      Many people are too PC on the subject to have open dialog, The “Lenny Bruce is Dead” line was surprisingly officially cemented by the Liberals, which are the same people he represented.

      Plus the example I used should have led to some serious thinking. As it is something I’d bet you are aware of.

      But I guess debates can be one sided if the mind is.

      1. I don’t agree that there is “really nothing to disagree with” in your original posts, Midas68. I’m free to disagree at will.

        Chalk this up to my small-mindedness if you like, but I also don’t like your tone, or the implications of your reading of Ms. Okorafor’s work. Calling an author’s work racist, and the author herself a hypocrite, is hardly constructive.

        Frankly, however, I’d rather not continue engaging with you in this comment section. I conducted the above interview in the hopes of beginning a constructive conversation about race in sff literature. I think that may be what you have in mind, but it’s coming out wrong — at least to me.

        I urge you to visit my blog, where there is contact information, should you wish to talk about the complexities of this issue. Of course, this is a public forum, so if you want to respond here as opposed to engaging with me privately, I can’t stop you.

        1. I’m sure your Half Right. But as I stated my response was in part to her calling King Racist for a book that was not centrally about race. Hers is undoubtedly so.

          But you are free to turn the cheek. Also if you wanted to come across as unbiased and having a valid point worth discussing you should have mentioned that “IF” she is Calling King something equating to Evil for his book then certainly you would have to at least think about the hypocraZy of it and mention that you Might have a problem with it.

          But I’m guessing your all part of the same In crowd who meet at cons and the like and also the other things Ive already hinted at.

          Also dismissing a side is not being inclusive or a means to a end. As of course you did not come right out and state beside that of your tone. (It’s a tit for tat thing)

          My whole point is that we need open dialog, not to discuss things in private that one may wish to keep hidden if they get ugly.

          Life is not easy and someone always has it worse. Sometimes all you can do is count what blessings you do have(which I was also touching on)

          Anyways Peace Out!

          C’est la vie

          1. Well, thanks Midas68. I’ll think about what you’ve said. I appreciate that you’ve responded so respectfully.

            Just FYI: I’m certainly not part on the in crowd. This is my first post on a major scene site, and I’ve only been to one con in my life. I hope to go to more in the future, and there have conversations with people of all different ideological stripes. The way we move toward a better world is through honest interaction, not shooting others down. I’m sorry if it seemed like I was attempting to do the latter. It was not my intention.

    1. Thank YOU for reading it, Paul!

      And I’m in complete agreement with you (and Ken); we won’t know until we’re past it and enjoying the benefits (or decrying the lack thereof).

  4. Thats fine Zach, Appreciate the same.
    And believe me, I know I am a bit jaded. But life will do that when you think to much about it. But I do have my own set of laws which keeps me in check and has enriched my life.

    Just treat everyone you meet as a individual. And if they turn out to be bad or even a stereotype then judge that person accordingly to his character and not the book cover. The next person you meet might be your best Friend/Lover etc.
    What King(Martin L.) said is obviously the way to go. It’s just that hate comes in all forms and colors etc. and it gets very complicated.

    You know the finger needs to be pointed but against who.(Bush is just one of the easy ones)

    The Recent Zimmerman case was a Big one to analyze,Once the facts started coming out, even stuff about him fighting the police against what he perceived as brutality against a black man he supposedly was championing. Makes one realize how quickly we jumped to a Harsh judgment (this isn’t saying he wasn’t wrong of course) But it was akin to a lynch mob scene and there are no Lynch Mobs who are rational or even want to be. Hate begetting hate until somebody gets hurt.

    And of course the special treatment he received wasn’t because of his perceived white skin but because his father was a former magistrate and it was definitely a situation where he was part of the IN Crowd in this one.

    Poor/Lower class whites(thats me baby) and Poor/Lower-class everybody else has so much in common. But the media does paint the poor white trash as a lower common denominator while also never separating us from the Rich Bastards who had and still have the mindset that Slavery is a pretty damn good way to make a buck.

    Personally I think the media MAY doe this to keep the real issues from being fought. They make most of it out to be Race instead of Class. Most black people today will say that O.J. was probably guilty, but at the time Many did not want too and even some didn’t care, celebrating in the streets(if you recall) This stuff is a byproduct. And once again a very complicated one. O.J Was a rich pampered star and considered a Uncle Tom at the time but then become a cultural Icon.(This is more complex then any science fiction)

    The real story and always have been is the Rich and the Poor. We all need to realize that. And Sadly if the Republicans have their way, There will be much more hate to go around after they strip benefits from the needy.

    It’s like the Far Side Cartoon where two human astronauts are being held in a glass jar and one giant alien says to the other “Shake it and see if they will fight”

    Only the Alien are the Few Wealthy who we already know has and would include slavery if we the masses let them.

    Its a Mad,Mad,Mad,Mad,Mad World.

    Even though we all have hate in us. Most of us want to let it go and get to a point where where we can truly be free.

    I would say Protest then join together and create a Viable Third Party is the only way to go. Obama seems to have lied to us, And even if he was Jesus H Christ there is nothing he can do with congress being 1 side against the other. We need a third Group for the people who can swing votes in congress and get rid of the ongoing and ever going stalemate.And its not the tea party/I’m thinking the 99% will have to actually back new party politicians and boycott instead of just protest.

    Forgive the typo’s but thats how I roll.
    Good Luck to Us All!

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