From Space.com, Keeping Watch for Interstellar Computer Viruses discusses the idea that other civilizations may try to infect our computer with a virus embedded in their interstellar communications.
This is an intereting idea, although the big caveat listed at the end of the article seems to indicate how difficult it would be to do this. The article also mentions that this idea has been a staple of SF for years. Off the top of my head, I can’t think of many that use the idea with a malicious intent. The ones I can think of:
A Deepnes in the Sky – Not malicious.
Macroscope – Possible malicious. Can’t remember much except that Anthony must have been on drugs when he wrote the ending.
And that’s it. I’m sure I’m missing other stories that use the idea of interstellar communications, between species, as a means for good or ill.